A hardware security module HSM is a dedicated crypto processor that is specifically designed for the protection of the crypto key lifecycle. Hardware security modules act as trust anchors that protect the cryptographic infrastructure of some of the most security-conscious organizations in the world by securely managing, processing, and storing cryptographic keys inside a hardened, tamper-resistant device.
Enterprises buy hardware security modules to protect transactions, identities, and applications, as HSMs excel at securing cryptographic keys and provisioning encryption, decryption, authentication, and digital signing services for a wide range of applications.
SafeNet Hardware Security Modules provide the highest level of security by always storing cryptographic keys in hardware. Since all cryptographic operations occur within the HSM, strong access controls prevent unauthorized users from accessing sensitive cryptographic material. Additionally, Gemalto also implements operations that make the deployment of secure HSMs as easy as possible, and our HSMs are integrated with SafeNet Crypto Command Center for quick and easy crypto resource partitioning, reporting and monitoring.
SafeNet HSMs adhere to rigorous design requirements and must pass through stringent product verification testing, followed by real-world application testing to verify the security and integrity of every device. Available in a wide range of form factors and performance options, SafeNet Luna General Purpose HSMs safeguard the cryptographic keys used to secure transactions, applications, and sensitive data.
Increase your return on investment by allowing multiple applications or business units to share a common HSM platform.
nShield Connect HSMs
The ideal solution for dedicated performance or application security use cases. Easy implementation for proof of concepts. Maintaining keys in hardware throughout their life-cycle is a best practice mandated by system security auditors and certification bodies responsible for attesting to the security status of cryptographic systems. The SafeNet Luna Backup HSM ensures your sensitive cryptographic material remains strongly protected in hardware even when not being used.
You can easily backup and duplicate keys securely to the SafeNet Luna Backup HSM for safekeeping in case of emergency, failure or disaster. SafeNet Payment Hardware Security Modules support the security needs of retail payment processing environments, internet payment applications, and web-based PIN delivery.
SafeNet Luna Payment Hardware Security Modules HSMs are network-attached HSMs designed for retail payment system processing environments for credit, debit, e-purse and chip cards, as well as internet payment applications. Available in network attached and PCIe form factors, SafeNet ProtectServer Hardware Security Modules HSMs are designed to protect cryptographic keys against compromise while providing encryption, signing and authentication services to secure Java and sensitive web applications.
SafeNet ProtectServer HSMs offer a unique level of flexibility for application developers to create their own firmware and execute it within the secure confines of the HSM. Known as functionality modules, the toolkits provide a comprehensive facility to develop and deploy custom firmware. SafeNet Java HSM allows developers to securely deploy Web applications, Web services and other Java applications in a protected hardened security appliance.
Managing hardware security modules virtually is now not only possible, but easy for administrators. A cloud-based platform that provides a wide range of on-demand HSM, key management and encryption services through a simple online marketplace.
In just 5 minutes you will gain a better understanding of your organization's post-quantum breach risk. A broad range of innovative technology partners utilize SafeNet Hardware Security Modules as roots of trust, relied upon to secure sensitive data, transactions, applications, and more around the world. Reduce risk and create competitive advantage using HSMs.
Address compliance mandates, as well as the devastating security breaches, business and governmental entities employ HSMs. To deliver a cloud solution that is viable for the financial services market, NASDAQ OMX needed to ensure a host of stringent security policies and compliance mandates would be addressed Thank you for your interest in our products.Addressing these concerns, threats and directives seems all the more daunting as enterprises transition data and applications from their own data centers to the cloud.
In particular, secure management of data and encryption keys across private, public, hybrid or multicloud environments presents a unique challenge. As enterprises make the transition to the cloud, encryption key management runs the risk of becoming inconsistent, as each cloud environment has its own approach to key management. The cloud strategy you adopt-private, hybrid, public or multicloud-is a key factor in the decision as to which encryption key management strategy will work best for your enterprise.
For best results, your key strategy should fit your long-term cloud strategy and should be applied consistently across your enterprise. These hardware appliances, which are designed and certified to be tamper-evident and intrusion-resistant, provide the highest level of physical security.
Keys are stored in the HSM, while cryptographic operations are securely executed within the module. As the de facto standard for encryption key management, HSMs provide a full complement of features and administrative functionality, including:. As enterprises transition to cloud deployments and contract with multiple cloud service providers, legacy HSM limitations come to the front.
Consider the following:. To ease the transition and mitigate the challenges clients face when moving from on-premises encryption key management to encryption key management in the cloud, many cloud providers have developed key management services KMSwhich are built on the strengths of Software as a Service SaaS.
A KMS offers centralized management of the encryption key lifecycle and the ability to export and import existing keys. There are distinct advantages to using the KMS offered by cloud providers-notably, that they build on the well-established strengths of cloud platforms:. However, studies such as the RightScale State of the Cloud Report indicate the majority of enterprises contract with multiple cloud providers.
In a multicloud environment, the technical and economic benefits of the cloud are diminished by the complexity of requiring a different encryption key management method for each cloud environment.
Most likely, your data security team is already struggling to attain or maintain compliance with ever-increasing regulations. You need a strategy to simplify key management without adding administrative complexity. You want a consistent, centralized and secure means to manage encryption keys-ideally, one specifically designed for multicloud environments. HSM as a Service, which provides HSM-grade key storage without the need for HSM appliances, is quickly implemented and easily scales to support data, processes and geographic growth.
HSM as a Service offers features and functionality equivalent to a KMS and possesses several additional capabilities to complement the strengths of cloud providers:. Encryption key management solutions: Let your long-term cloud strategy guide your choice. Choosing the optimal encryption key management strategy and means of implementation can be a straightforward process. If you run a private or hybrid cloud environment within your own data center, you already have HSMs with established encryption keys in place, and you intend to maintain that environment for the foreseeable future, it makes sense to stay the course.
As an alternative, though, consider the advantages of HSM as a Service. It can eliminate the cost and overhead of provisioning HSMs in your data center as your data and processing demands grow. In contrast to KMS, it can provide an additional level of breach defense by keeping the encryption keys separate from the encrypted data stored by your cloud provider. The chart below provides recommendations for the best encryption key management solution based on your long-term cloud strategy:.
June 19, 7 min read. This article is also published in: Dutch. As the de facto standard for encryption key management, HSMs provide a full complement of features and administrative functionality, including: Lifecycle management: An HSM will guard encryption keys through every stage of their lifecycle, including creation, import, export, usage, rotation, destruction and auditing.
Centralized management: Desktop administrative tools remotely manage key lifecycles and support separation of administrative duties for added security.
Legacy HSM limitations in cloud environments As enterprises transition to cloud deployments and contract with multiple cloud service providers, legacy HSM limitations come to the front. Connectivity: Will connections between on-premises HSMs and encrypted data stored in the cloud introduce unacceptable latency that impacts encryption and decryption?
Management tools: If you contract with multiple cloud providers, are you prepared for the inefficiency of having a different set of HSM key management tools for each provider? Key management services for cloud environments Functionally similar to the services provided by HSMs, a KMS enables clients to manage encryption keys without concerns about HSM appliance selection or provisioning.
There are distinct advantages to using the KMS offered by cloud providers-notably, that they build on the well-established strengths of cloud platforms: Scalability: The cloud platform can easily accommodate enterprise data, processing and geographic growth. Availability: Cloud providers have made significant investments in infrastructure to ensure service availability.
Integration: Native integration with other services such as system administration, databases, storage and application development tools offered by the cloud provider. HSM as a Service offers features and functionality equivalent to a KMS and possesses several additional capabilities to complement the strengths of cloud providers: Multicloud and hybrid-cloud capabilities: Consistent, centralized control and management regardless of where the data resides.Quickly and easily view product specs, compare various solutions, and print out select product information.
Product Selector Guide. Download Drivers. Login Now. Get Support. Product Security Center. Marvell offers a collaborative fast-paced environment where innovative ideas can really make a difference. If you want to achieve great things, then we want to talk with you. Search Job Opportunities. This robust solution includes remote management capabilities designed for lights out data center, real time scaling, run time isolated partitions and true High availability and load balancing capabilities.
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LiquidSecurity Network HSM
Ecosystem Partners Accelerate customer end solutions with an extensive network of eco-system partners for ThunderX and ThunderX2 Arm processors.Keys stored in HSMs can be used for cryptographic operations. The key material stays safely in tamper-resistant, tamper-evident hardware modules. The HSM only allows authenticated and authorized applications to use the keys.
The key material never leaves the HSM protection boundary.
Hardware Security Modules (HSMs)
Azure Dedicated HSM is a cloud-based service that provides HSMs hosted in Azure datacenters that are directly connected to a customer's virtual network. They are deployed directly to a customers' private IP address space and Microsoft does not have any access to the cryptographic functionality of the HSMs. Only the customer has full administrative and cryptographic control over these devices. Customers are responsible for the management of the device and they can get full activity logs directly from their devices.
This device not only provides FIPS Level 3 validated firmware, but also offers low-latency, high performance, and high capacity via 10 partitions. HSMs are used for storing cryptographic keys that are used for cryptographic functionality such as SSL secure socket layerencrypting data, PKI public key infrastructureDRM digital rights managementand signing documents.
The customer specifies what virtual network the HSMs will be connected to and once provisioned the HSMs will be available in the designated subnet at assigned IP addresses in the customer's private IP address space. Then customers can connect to the HSMs using SSH for appliance management and administration, set up HSM client connections, initialize HSMs, create partitions, define, and assign roles such as partition officer, crypto officer, and crypto user.
Gemalto supplies all software for the HSM device once provisioned by Microsoft. The software is available at the Gemalto customer support portal. Customers using the Dedicated HSM service are required to be registered for Gemalto support and have a Customer ID that enables access and download of relevant software.
The supported client software is version 7. Further regions are planned and can be discussed via your Microsoft Account Representative. Yes, you will need to use VNET peering within a region to establish connectivity across virtual networks.
For cross-region connectivity, you must use VPN Gateway. Point-to-point VPN or point-to-site connectivity can be used to establish connectivity with your on-premises network. There are multiple methods.
Refer to the Gemalto HSM documentation. To have high availability, you need to set up your HSM client application configuration to use partitions from each HSM. Refer to the Gemalto HSM client software documentation. Dedicated HSMs present an option to migrate an application with minimal changes.Encryption and Key Management in AWS
Azure Dedicated HSM is most suitable for migration scenarios. This means that if you are migrating on-premises applications to Azure that are already using HSMs. This provides a low-friction option to migrate to Azure with minimal changes to the application.
Each HSM appliance is fully dedicated to one single customer and no one else has administrative control once provisioned and the administrator password changed. Microsoft does not have any administrative or cryptographic control over the HSM.
Microsoft does have monitor level access via serial port connection to retrieve basic telemetry such as temperature and component health. This allows Microsoft to provide proactive notification of health issues. If necessary, the customer can disable this account. The HSM device ships with a default user of admin with its usual default password.With their comprehensive capabilities, these HSMs can support an extensive range of applications, including certificate authorities, code signing and more.
The latest nShield Connect XC models offer an optional serial port that allows enterprises to eliminate costly repeat trips to the data center. Remote Configuration capabilities afforded by this feature include:.
Technicians simply need to rack and cable the nShield HSM appliance and connect a serial concentrator in the data center to prepare the nShield Connect XC for full remote configuration and administration. This reduces the need for trained resources in the data center and provides customers more efficiency and control over their HSMs.
With this proven HSMs encryption technology, you can combine different nShield HSM appliance models to build a unified ecosystem that delivers scalability, seamless failover and load balancing. The nShield Connect XC offers our highest transaction performance rates.
The CodeSafe option lets you execute code within nShield boundaries, protecting your applications and the data they process. These certifications help our customers to demonstrate compliance while also giving them the assurance that their nShield HSMs meet stringent industry standards.
ECC, one of the most efficient cryptographic algorithms, is particularly favored where low power consumption is crucial, such as applications running on small sensors or mobile devices. For organizations wishing to use ECC or South Korean algorithms, optional activation licenses are needed. To meet the performance needs of your application, nCipher provides a variety of nShield Connect models as shown in the Specifications tab. You can select among the performance models shown, and can also purchase in-field upgrades from lower performance models to higher models.
Additional licenses are available for purchase. The maximum number of client licenses supported varies by nShield Connect model as shown in the table below. The API gives cloud, data center or on-premises applications access to nShield data protection solutions without the need for client-side integration. With this solution, security teams can efficiently inspect HSMs and find out immediately if any potential security, configuration or utilization issue may compromise their mission-critical infrastructure.
Remote Administration Kits contain the hardware and software needed to set up and use the tool. CodeSafe is a powerful, secure environment that lets you execute applications within the secure boundaries of nShield HSMs. Sample applications include digital meters, authentication agents, digital signature agents and custom encryption processes. The CipherTools Developer Toolkit is a set of tutorials, reference documentation, sample programs and additional libraries. With this toolkit, developers can take full advantage of the advanced integration capabilities of nShield HSMs.
Databases often contain an organization's most sensitive data. To help customers protect their data, major database vendors have implemented native encryption in their products. Security teams that want to strongly authenticate their nShield Connect HSMs clients can use nTokens PCIe cards to do hardware-based host identification and verification. Many functions of nShield Connect HSMs can easily be executed using the touch wheel at the front of the unit.
These parts include the following:. The nCipher Security World architecture supports a specialized key management framework that spans the entire nShield family of general purpose hardware security modules HSMs.
Whether deploying high performance, shareable, network-attached HSMs appliances, host-embedded HSMs cards or USB-attached portable HSMs, the Security World architecture provides a unified administrator and user experience and guaranteed interoperability whether the customer deploys one or hundreds of devices. It is vital for any business that relies on cryptographic keys to have assurances and enforceable policies around key usage.
This paper demonstrates how it is possible to easily configure Security World to define a framework which permits both partitioning and multi-tenancy cryptographic key isolation strategies. CodeSafe is a set of software tools that enables you to run applications in a secure execution environment inside nShield HSMs. Reduce integration and gain simplicity using this API, providing a simple interface between cloud, data center or on-premises applications and nShield crypto services.
Reduce travel time and costs by managing your geographically distributed nShield HSMs from your local office. USB-connected desktop HSMs that provide convenience and economy for environments requiring low-volume cryptographic key services. PCI-Express card-based HSMs that deliver cryptographic key services to applications hosted on individual servers and appliances. Remote Configuration The latest nShield Connect XC models offer an optional serial port that allows enterprises to eliminate costly repeat trips to the data center.
Separation of roles ensures the cryptographic key material is not exposed to the provider. Purging key material and decommissioning the nShield HSM appliance at the end of a usage cycle in preparation for its next deployment Technicians simply need to rack and cable the nShield HSM appliance and connect a serial concentrator in the data center to prepare the nShield Connect XC for full remote configuration and administration.
Process more data faster nShield Connect HSMs support some of the highest cryptographic transaction rates in the industry, making them ideal for enterprise, retail, IoT and other environments where throughput is critical.A hardware security module HSM is a physical computing device that safeguards and manages digital keys for strong authentication and provides cryptoprocessing.
These modules traditionally come in the form of a plug-in card or an external device that attaches directly to a computer or network server. A hardware security module contains one or more secure cryptoprocessor chips.
Humans have tried to establish and maintain confidential lines of communication for millennia, rarely with enduring success. During World War II governments and military organizations invested heavily in encryption systems cryptographic "defense" and code breaking cryptographic "offense".
However, civilian and commercial adoption of encryption systems lagged considerably, in large part due to legal and regulatory constraints. As global trade and the financial industry flourished after World War II, and as national economic security became more strategic, commercial exploitation of strong encryption emerged as a national imperative in the United States and in several other countries.
In the early s the U. National Bureau of Standards NBS sponsored a standardization process for cryptographic algorithms to be available for civilian use. National Security Agency reviewand the U.
The IBM included secure key entry devices cards and PIN pads for master key loading, random number generation capabilities for seeding, and persistent storage for key materials.
HSMs have continued to evolve and improve ever since, but many modern HSMs, including IBM's, still broadly resemble the IBM 's basic architecture: direct attachment typically now via dedicated network or bus attachment, sometimes with the HSM embeddedsome level of tamper protection or at least tamper evident packaging in varying degrees and certification levels, some mechanism for loading and managing key materials with varying levels of trust, random number generation capabilities, persistent storage, and software features drivers, libraries, etc.
Frequently asked questions (FAQ)
HSMs may have features that provide tamper evidence such as visible signs of tampering or logging and alerting, or tamper resistance which makes tampering difficult without making the HSM inoperable, or tamper responsiveness such as deleting keys upon tamper detection. A vast majority of existing HSMs are designed mainly to manage secret keys. Keys may be backed up in wrapped form and stored on a computer disk or other media, or externally using a secure portable device like a smartcard or some other security token.
Because HSMs are often part of a mission-critical infrastructure such as a public key infrastructure or online banking application, HSMs can typically be clustered for high availability and performance. Some HSMs feature dual power supplies and field replaceable components such as cooling fans to conform to the high-availability requirements of data center environments and to enable business continuity.
A few of the HSMs available in the market have the capability to execute specially developed modules within the HSM's secure enclosure. Such an ability is useful, for example, in cases where special algorithms or business logic has to be executed in a secured and controlled environment. The modules can be developed in native C language.
NET, Java, or other programming languages. Further, upcoming next-generation HSMs  can handle more complex tasks such as loading and running full operating systems and COTS software without requiring customization and reprogramming.
Such unconventional designs overcome existing design and performance limitations of traditional HSMs. With the advent of Trusted Execution Environment s TEEssome claim that HSMs no longer need to depend on proprietary hardware architectures and physical tamper protection. Rather, they can exploit the security properties of the TEE to protect the confidentiality and integrity of both the secret keys and the application code.
This enables "soft HSMs" such as the Fortanix Self-Defending Key Management Service  to be deployed using off-the-shelf hardware, virtual machines, and cloud servers while providing similar security guarantees to traditional HSMs. Moreover, such solutions can utilize cloud-native technologies to simplify scaling. There is also the possibility of executing custom code plugins within the TEE.
However, these guarantees provided by soft HSMs are not similar to those provided by proprietary hardware architectures and physical tamper protection, and various standards organizations do not accept these arguments. A hardware security module can be employed in any application that uses digital keys.
Typically the keys must be of high value - meaning there would be a significant, negative impact to the owner of the key if it were compromised. HSMs are also deployed to manage transparent data encryption keys for databases and keys for storage devices such as disk or tape.
HSMs provide both logical and physical protection of these materials, including cryptographic keys, from disclosure, non-authorized use, and potential adversaries. HSMs support both symmetric and asymmetric public-key cryptography.
For some applications, such as certificate authorities and digital signing, the cryptographic material is asymmetric key pairs and certificates used in public-key cryptography. Some HSM systems are also hardware cryptographic accelerators. They usually cannot beat the performance of hardware-only solutions for symmetric key operations.
To address this issue, some HSMs now support elliptic curve cryptography ECCwhich delivers stronger encryption with shorter key lengths. In these cases, there are some fundamental features a device must have, namely:. On the other hand, device performance in a PKI environment is generally less important, in both online and offline operations, as Registration Authority procedures represent the performance bottleneck of the Infrastructure.Only available when the number of distinct values is less than or equal to 32.
A measure of 'peakiness' or heavy tails in the field's distribution.
A status code that reflects the status of the dataset creation. Number of milliseconds that BigML. Information about ill-formatted fields that includes the total format errors for the field and a sample of the ill-formatted tokens. Example: "category": 1 description optional A description of the dataset up to 8192 characters long. Example: "description": "This is a description of my new dataset" fields optional Updates the names, labels, and descriptions of the fields in the new dataset.
Example: "description": "This field is a transformation" descriptions optional A description for every of the new fields generated. Example: "fields": "(window Price -2 0)" label optional Label of the new field. Example: "label": "New price" Labels for each of the new fields generated. Example: "name": "Price" names optional Names for each of the new fields generated. Example: "This is a description of my new sample" name optional The name you want to give to the new sample.
This will be 201 upon successful creation of the sample and 200 afterwards. Make sure that you check the code that comes with the status attribute to make sure that the sample creation has been completed without errors and that it is still available in the in-memory cache. This is the date and time in which the sample was created with microsecond precision. True when the sample has been created in the development mode. In a future version, you will be able to share samples with other co-workers.
It includes the fields' dictionary describing the fields and their summaries and the rows. A description of the status of the sample. This is the date and time in which the sample was updated with microsecond precision. Each entry includes the column number in the original dataset, the name of the field, the type of the field, and the summary.
See this Section for more details. A list of lists representing the rows of the sample. Values in each list are ordered according to the fields list. A status code that reflects the status of the sample creation.
That is no categories are specified. A dictionary between input field id and an array of categories to limit the analysis to.
Each array must contain 2 or more unique and valid categories in the string format. If omitted, each categorical field is limited to its 100 most frequent categorical values. This field has no impact if the data type of input fields are non-categorical.